Examining the Livelihood Assets and Sustainable Livelihoods among the Vulnerability Groups in Malaysia

  • Ahmad Zubir Ibrahim School of Government, Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Kalthum Hassan School of Government, Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Roslina Kamaruddin School of Economic, Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Abdul Rahim Anuar School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Keywords: Sustainability livelihood, Livelihoods vulnerability, Livelihood asset

Abstract

Until recently, the livelihood vulnerability group such as paddy farmers, coastal fishers and rubber tappers in rural areas are susceptible to economic shock and climate change such as flood and drought. This situation will jeopardise the livelihoods of this group. In response to that, this study aims to investigate the relationship between livelihood assets and sustainable livelihoods. This study adopts quantitative study with stratified sampling method to select a total of 600 respondents from rural areas in Kedah and Kelantan. The findings confirm that physical asset, natural asset and social asset are significantly related to the achievement of sustainable livelihoods. Some recommendations have been highlighted to assist the concerned parties in improving sustainable livelihoods among the vulnerable group in rural areas.

References

Adunga, E. (2013). Factors influencing income level of agro-pastoral communities. International Journal of Social Economics, 40(3), 207–219.

Ahmed, N., Troel, M., Allison, E. H., & Muir, J. F. (2010). Prawn postlarvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: Challenges for sustainable livelihood. Marine Policy, 34(2), 218-227

Akudugu, M. A. (2011). Rural banks, financial capital and livelihoods development of women farmers in Ghana. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 5(4), 248–264. http://doi.org/10.1108/17506201111177307

Alayande, B.A. (2002). Determinants of vulnerability to Poverty, a World Bank Commissioned Study.

Alfonso, C., Mendoza, S., Czerny, M., Allec, A., Pineda, L., Alonso, O., & Rojas, V. (2015). Miscellanea geographica. Regional studies on development livelihood assessment in district 1 of Medellin–Colombia, 19(4), 9–20. http://doi.org/10.1515/mgrsd-2015-0025.

Ansoms, A. (2008). Rural poverty and livelihoods profiles in post-genocide Rwanda. Discussion paper. Institute of Development Policy and Management. University of Antwerp.

Ashley, C., & Carney, D. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods: Lessons from early experience. London, UK: Russell Press Ltd.

Atedhor, G. O. (2015). Agricultural vulnerability to climate change in Sokoto State, Nigeria. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 15(2), 9856-9871.

Bajwa, S. K. (2015). A study of the status of livelihood assets at household Level: Evidence from Saidpur Village. Pakistan Institute for Development Economics. Discussion paper 3.

Bennett, N. (2010). Sustainable livelihoods from theory to conservation practice: An extended annotated bibliography for prospective application of livelihoods approaches in protected area community research.

Carney, D. (1998). Implementing the sustainable rural livelihoods: What contribution can we make? Department of International Development, UK.

Chaudhuri, S. (2000). “Empirical methods for Assessing household vulnerability to poverty”, Mimeo Department of Economics and School of International and Public Affairs. Columbia University.

Chen, H., Zhu, T., Krott, M., Calvo, J. F., Ganesh, S. P., Makoto, I. (2013). Measurement and evaluation of livelihood assets in sustainable forest common governance. Land Use Policy, 30, 908-914.

Christiaensen, L., & Subbarao, K. (2001). Towards an understanding of vulnerability in rural Kenya. Mimeo. The World Bank. Washington, D.C.

Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 9, 95–120. http://doi.org/10.1086/228943.

Department for International Development. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. London: DFID.

Department for International Development. (2001). Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. www.livelihoods.org/info/info_guidanceSheets.html#6: DFID.

Dercon, S. (2001). Assessing Vulnerability to Poverty. Mimeo, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.

Duarte, P. A. O., & Raposo, M. L. B. (2010). “A PLS model to study brand preference: An application to the mobile phone market”. In V. Esposito Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of Partial Least Squares (pp. 449-485). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Ellis, F. (2000). The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 51, 289–302.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Gholami, R., Sulaiman, A. B., Ramayah, T., & Molla, A. (2013). Senior managers’ perception of green information system (IS) adoption and environmental performance: Results from a field survey. Information & Management, 50, 431-438.

Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M. C. (2000). Structural equation modelling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(1), 7.

Guerry, A. D., Polasky, S., Lubchenco, J., Chaplin-Kramer, R., Daily, G. C., Griffin, R., Vira, B. (2015). Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice. In Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences, 112, 7348–7355. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503751112.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM): Sage Publications.

Hair, F. J., Joe, Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, G. V. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106-121.

Henseler, J., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Goodness-of-fit indices for partial least squares path modelling. Computational Statistics, 1-16.

Ibrahim, A. Z., & Alam, M. M. (2016). Climatic changes, government interventions, and paddy production: an empirical study of the Muda irrigation area in Malaysia. International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, 12(3), 292-304.

Islam, G. M. N., & Yew, T. S. (2013). Property rights and access: The case of community-based fisheries management in Bangladesh. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(6). http://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v5n6p164.

Kamaruddin, R., & Baharuddin, A. (2015). The importance of good aquaculture in improving fish farmers' income: A case of Malaysia. International Journal of Social Economics, 42(12), 1090–1105. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJSE-02-2014-0028

Kamaruddin, R., & Samsudin, S. (2014). The sustainable livelihoods index: A tool to assess the ability and preparedness of the rural poor in receiving entrepreneurial project. Journal of Social Economics Research, 1(6), 108–117.

Kapoi, K. J., & Charles, N. M. (2014). Livelihood vulnerability assessment in the context of drought hazard: A case study of Baringo county, Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(3),346 -349.

Kasim, Y., Ibrahim, A. Z., & Din, B. B. H. (2017). Understanding the effect of access to livelihood assets and government intervention on poverty reduction: A partial least squares approach. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development, 7(4), 139-154.

Kataria, K., Curtiss, J., & Balmann, A. (2012). Drivers of agricultural physical capital development: Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses (No. 122). Centre for European Policy Studies.

Krantz, L. (2001). The sustainable livelihood approach to poverty reduction, SIDA. Division for policy and socio-economic analysis. Retrieved from- http://www.forestry.umn.edu/prod/groups/cfans/@pub/@cfans/@forestry/documents/asset/cfans_asset_202603.pdf

Kumo, K. (2015). Research on Poverty in Transition Economies: A Meta-analysis on Changes in the Determinants of Poverty (No. 51). Russian Research Center, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.

Lim. G. N., & Mansur, K. (2015). Understanding poverty and vulnerability by utilizing the sustainable livelihood approach: A comprehensive study of rungus ethnic in Sabah, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Business and Economics, 2(1), 1-24.

Loewen, G. (2009). A compendium of poverty reduction strategies and framework. Canada, Tamarack. www.tamarackcommunity.ca.

McCulloch, J. and C. Calandrino (2003). Poverty and vulnerability. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 84 (2): 221-225.

Méndez-Lemus, Y., & Vieyra, A. (2014). Tracing Processes in Poverty Dynamics: A Tale of Peri-urban Small-scale Farmers in Mexico City. Urban Studies, 51(10), 2009-2035.

Ng‘ang'a, S. K., Jeannette, V., Notenbaert, A., Moyo, S., & Herrero, M. (2011). Household livelihood strategies and livestock benefits dependence in Gaza province of Mozambique. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(3), 560–572. http://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR10.399.

Olugbire, O. O., Falusi, A. O., Adeoti, A. I., Oyekale, A. S., & Adeniran, O. A. (2011). Non-farm income diversification and poverty reduction in Nigeria: A propensity-score matching Analysis. Continental Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(3), 21-28.

Oumer, A. M., & de Neergaard, A. (2011). Understanding livelihood strategy-poverty links: empirical evidence from central highlands of Ethiopia. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 13(3), 547-564.

Ravallion, M. (2011). On multidimensional indices of poverty. Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(2), 234-248.

Ringle, C., Wende, S., & Will, A. (2005). Smart-PLS Version 2.0 M3. University of Hamburg.

Samsudin, S., & Kamaruddin, R. (2013). Distribution of the livelihood asset among the hardcore poor: Evidence from Kedah, Malaysia. World Applied Science Journal, 28, 38-42. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.28.efmo.27008

Scoones, I. (1998). “Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis”. IDS Working Paper 72, IDS, Brighton, UK.

Sen, A. (1997). Human capital and human capability. World Development, 25(12), 1959-1961.

Seng, K. (2015). The effects of non-farm activities on farm households' food consumption in rural Cambodia. Development Studies Research, 2(1), 77-89 DOI: 10.1080/21665095.2015.1098554.

Shehu, A & Abubakar, N. (2015). Determinants of participation of farm households in non- enterprise activities in Nigeria. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. III (6), 57–71.

Su. F, & Shang, H.Y. (2012). Relationship analysis between livelihood assets and livelihood strategies: A Heihe River Basin example, Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 4(3): 0265–0274

Thi, H., Dao, T., & Manh, P. H. (2013). Settlement of household livelihoods for poor fishers: The case of Cam Ranh reservoir, Khanh Hoa Province. Asian Journal of Poverty, 1(1), 1–7.

Twyman, C., & Slater, R. (2005). Hidden livelihoods? Natural resource-dependent livelihoods and urban development policy. Progress in Development Studies, 5(1), 1-15.

Unmesh, P., & Narayanan, K. (2015). How effective are coping mechanisms in securing livelihoods against climatic aberrations? International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 7(3), 359–374. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-07-2014-0085.

Weiss, Y. (2015). Gary Becker on human capital. Journal of Demographic Economics, 81(01), 27–31. http://doi.org/10.1017/dem.2014.4.

World Bank (2012). An update to the World Bank‘s estimate of consumption in the Developing World. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Published
2017-07-01
How to Cite
Ibrahim, A. Z., Hassan, K., Kamaruddin, R., & Anuar, A. R. (2017). Examining the Livelihood Assets and Sustainable Livelihoods among the Vulnerability Groups in Malaysia. Indian-Pacific Journal of Accounting and Finance, 1(3), 52-63. https://doi.org/10.32890/ipjaf.2017.1.3.17
Section
Main Section